The Black Consciousness Movement was formed in the mid- to late-1960s by Steve Biko, and like minded activists in South Africa, as a reaction to the Apartheid state's white racism and the perceived paternalistic attitudes of white liberal groups.
The development of the BCM echoed the growth of Black Power in the US. The movement's ideology, although founded in black Christianity, tended towards more militant and radical solutions. This was despite Biko's support for non-violent action (he was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi).
By 1976 the key leadership of the BCM had either been banned or arrested. On 12 September 1977, its leader, Steve Biko died in detention in a Pretoria prison cell.