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Independent Africa

The struggle for independence which followed the First World War had a serious effect on European empires. Investigate both peaceful and bloody resistance to Colonial domination as Africa reclaims it's own identity.

The Tripartite Invasion, 1956
Britain, France and Israel attempt to wrest the Suez Canal from Egyptian control - Part 1: Nasser takes control.

An Atlas of African Independence
By the mid 1960's the majority of African states were free from colonial rule. Read more about each countries story in this Atlas of Independence.

Brazzaville Conference 1944
What was the Brazzaville Conference of 1944?

Key Events in the Decolonization of Africa: Suez Crisis
Find out why the Suez Crisis was significant in the struggle for independence in Africa.

Africa and the Commonwealth of Nations
18 countries in Africa are currently part of the Commonwealth of Nations (with Zimbabwe having departed in 2003).

Alphabetical List of African Members of the Commonwealth of Nations
A list of when various African countries joined the Commonwealth of Nations.

Chronological List of African Members of the Commonwealth of Nations
A list of when various African countries joined the Commonwealth of Nations.

Chronology of African Independence
From the early departure of the Germans under the Treaty of Versailles to the first-in-last-out stance of the Portuguese -- the struggle for independence was both long and bloody. But by the mid 60's the majority of African states were free from colonial rule. Find out when each country achieved independence from this chronological list of independence dates.

Macmillan's "Wind of Change" speech
The "Wind of Change" speech was made by the British Prime Minister whilst addressing the South African Parliament during his tour of African Commonwealth states. It was a watershed moment in the struggle for black nationalism in Africa and the independence movement across the continent. It also signalled a change in attitude towards the Apartheid regime in South Africa.

Henrik Verwoerd's response to Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" Speech
Prime Minister Henrik Verwoerd responded to Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" speech by pushing forward the rights of white men in Africa and was met with applause from the members of South Africa's Parliament.

Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" Speech
The "Wind of Change" speech was made by the British Prime Minister whilst addressing the South African Parliament during his tour of African Commonwealth states.

The Tripartite Invasion, 1956
The Tripartite Invasion, or 1956 War, was perhaps the single most important event in the history of African independence. The fallout from this unsuccessful attempt by Britain, France, and Israel to maintain an influence over the Suez Canal created a climate in Africa which both encouraged and escalated the struggle for independence.

Jomo Kenyatta -- the Light of Kenya.
Kamau wa Ngengi was born in 1889, later christened John Peter Kamau and used the pseudonym Jomo Kenyatta (light of Kenya) whilst campaigning for Kenyan independence in Britain. This detailed timeline of his life gives insight to the struggle for a countries independence.

Nigeria: Chronology Of The Struggle For Democracy
A detailed timeline of Nigeria's political development since gaining independence. Read how the years of military dictatorship influenced the current climate in Nigeria.

A Timeline for Post-Independence Africa
A comprehensive timeline covering Post-Independence Africa. An excellent start for academic study as it contains many links to peripheral material.

The UN on African Independence
The resolution passed 14 December 1960 by the General Assembly of United Nations on Granting Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland lasted for 10 years, part of Britain's approach to independence in Africa. Find out more about the federation and why it ended.

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