What Led to the Scramble for Africa?
Why was Africa so rapidly colonized?
Countries in Africa Considered Never Colonized
There are two countries in Africa which are considered to never have been colonized. The truth, however, is much more complex and open to debate.
General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa
Full Text of the General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa as signed on 26 February 1885
Mandates in Africa
Mandates were granted by the League of Nations for former German colonies in Africa. Find out more about who received these mandates and what they were required to do.
Covenant of the League of Nations: Article 22
Text of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, as agreed on 28 June 1919.
Covenant of the League of Nations: Article 23
Text of Article 23 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, as agreed on 28 June 1919.
Europe Meets to Divide Africa
In 1884-85 European Powers met at Berlin to decide how they would divide up Africa between themselves.
This speech by Jules Ferry, who was prime minister of France twice during the 1880s, conveys the attitude of Europeans to colonisation in Africa.
Missionary Laura Collins took these photos in the early 20th century. She worked as a missionary in Kenya for 45 years, until 1952.
Colonisation of Liberia
The American Colonization Society was founded in 1817 with the aim of returning African-Americans to Africa. In 1822 it established a colony in West Africa, which became Liberia in 1847. By 1867 more than 13,000 African-Americans had moved there.
Cecil John Rhodes
Rhodes had a dream to see the British Empire stretch from the Cape to Cairo, and spent his life trying to achieve this.
"Is He Not in Congo-Land?" from Henry Stanley Morton
Excerpts from Henry Stanley Morton's Through the Dark Continent and The Founding of the Congo Free State describe just how "enticing" central Africa was to European colonists.