1. Education

DRC Timeline -- Part 4: Rebellion in Shaba to Genocide in Neighboring Rwanda

A Chronology of Key Events in DRC

By Alistair Boddy-Evans, About.com

June 1977 Rebellion in Shaba province by Front National pour la Libération du Congo (FNLC, Front for the National Liberation of the Congo) has been suppressed with Belgian and French aid (and the airlift of 1,500 Moroccan troops).
1977 President Mobutu Sese Seko makes overtures to overseas investors to come back to Zaïre. He is mainly unsuccessful.
1 July 1977 President Mobutu Sese Seko dismisses several people from the Executive Council of the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution), and the entire Political Bureau for their failure over the Front National pour la Libération du Congo (FNLC, Front for the National Liberation of the Congo) rebellion in Shaba province. Mobutu also takes personal control of the Army General Staff.
6 July 1977 Mpinga Kasenga is appointed as First State Commissioner -- a post equivalent to that of prime minister -- as head of government for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
August 1977 Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond, Commissioner for Foreign Affairs, is dismissed and tried for treason. He is sentenced to death, commuted to life imprisonment.
October 1977 President Mobutu Sese Seko announces political reforms, giving regional commissioners control over the army, police and local government in their regions. However, Mobutu has the right to appoint (and sack) said commissioners.
3 December 1977 Mobutu Sese Seko elected (as only candidate) for third term in office.
11 May 1978 Second attempted rebellion by the Front National pour la Libération du Congo (FNLC, Front for the National Liberation of the Congo) in Shaba province is put down (with French and US aid). This time it is launched from bases in Zambia.
4 June 1978 Peacekeeping troops from Morocco, Senegal, and Gabon are amongst those now acting as peacekeepers in Shaba province,
20 August 1978 President Antonio Agostinho Neto of Angola meets with Mobutu Sese Seko on a state visit in the hope of reconciliation. Mobutu claimed that Angola was sheltering Front National pour la Libération du Congo (FNLC, Front for the National Liberation of the Congo) rebels, whilst Neto claimed that Zaïre was sheltering Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola (FNLA, National Front for the Liberation of Angola) rebels.
6 March 1979 Bo-Boliko Lokonga Mihambo takes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond is released from prison and reinstated as Commissioner for Foreign Affairs.
27 August 1980 Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond takes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
President Mobutu Sese Seko appoints himself Chairman of the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
23 April 1981 N'singa Udjuu Untube takes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution). Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond flees Zaïre for exile in Belgium.
1 July 1982 Thirteen people from the National Legislative Council, and another twenty-five politicians, are arrested for attempting to found an opposition party, the Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS, Union for Democracy and Social Progress) earlier in the year. They are sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment.
18 September 1982 Elections for the National Assembly is compulsory, and only members of the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution) are put forward as candidates.
October 1982 Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond forms an opposition in exile group -- the Front Congolais pour le Rétablissement de la Démocratie (FCD, Congolese Front for the Restoration of Democracy)
5 November 1982 Léon Kengo Wa Dondo takes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
1984 President Mobuto Sese Seko is re-elected president for another seven year term. (He is the only candidate in the elections.)
13 November 1984 Front National pour la Libération du Congo (FNLC, Front for the National Liberation of the Congo) troops temporarily capture the Shaba province town of Moba.
1985 Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond returns from exile in Belgium.
1986 Zaïre is used as a base by the US to supply arms to União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola) rebels in Angola.
March 1986 Amnesty International accuses Mobutu's regime of human rights abuses against followers of Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS, Union for Democracy and Social Progress).
July 1986 Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond appointed ambassador to the USA.
22 January 1987 Léon Kengo Wa Dondo is dismissed and Mabi Mulumbatakes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
June 1987 Several senior Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS, Union for Democracy and Social Progress) members are offered amnesty by President Mobutu Sese Seko.
September 1987 With candidates for National Legislative Council elections only from the ruling Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution), opposition groups announce the intention to set up an opposition-government-in-exile.
7 March 1988 Sambwa Pida Nbagui takes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
8 April 1988 Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba, the leader of the Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS, Union for Democracy and Social Progress), is arrested along with several other senior members of the party. They are released from detention in September after international protest over political prisoners.
26 November 1988 Léon Kengo Wa Dondo reappointed as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution). A third of the National Executive Council is replaced.
1989 Zaïre defaults on debts to Belgium which results in the canceling of aid and development programs.
February 1989 In a protest at Kinshasa University by students, four people are killed when the military is called in to disperse the demonstrators.
22August 1989 Zaïre's border with Angola is reopened.
September 1989 Zaïre resumes diplomatic relations with Zambia and the border is reopened, after claims that Zambia was sheltering Front National pour la Libération du Congo (FNLC, Front for the National Liberation of the Congo) rebels.
26 March 1990 Reconciliation agreement signed between Zaïre and Belgium.
24 April 1990 President Mobutu Sese Seko lifts the ban on opposition political parties. There is to be a transitional period of a year. Mobutu also resigns from the post of Chairman of the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution) and State Commissioner for National Defense.
4 May 1990 Professor Lunda Bululu takes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
1 April 1991 Mulumba Lukoji takes over as First State Commissioner for the Mouvement Populaire de la Revolution (MPR, Popular Movement of the Revolution).
1991 There is wide spread rioting over Zaïre's failing economy. Soldiers also riot over the failure of the state to pay their wages.
President Mobutu Sese Seko agrees to a coalition government with opposition leaders.
29 September 1991 Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba takes over as First State Commissioner for the Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS, Union for Democracy and Social Progress).
1 November 1991 Bernardin Mungul Diaka takes over as First State Commissioner for the Rassemblement Démocratique pour la République (RDR, Democratic Rally for the Republic).
25 November 1991 Jean Nguza Karl-i-Bond returns as First State Commissioner, this time for the Union des Fédéralistes et des Républicains Indépendants (UFERI, Union of Independent Federalists and Republicans).
15 August 1992 Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba returns as First State Commissioner for the Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS, Union for Democracy and Social Progress).
18 March 1993 Faustin Birindwa takes over as First State Commissioner for the Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (UDPS, Union for Democracy and Social Progress).
30 September 1993 President Mobutu Sese Seko comes to an agreement with opposition groups over the adoption of a new constitution for a transition to a new republic in 1995. The agreement covers the role of an executive president, parliament and political institutions.
December 1993 Governor of Shaba province declares independence.
January 1994 Transitional parliament created, but it is unable to decide on a new premier under Mobuto's rules.
6 July 1994 Léon Kengo Wa Dondo returns over as First State Commissioner, this time for the Unión Democrata Independiente (UDI, Independent Union of Democrats). A new cabinet is endorsed by the transitional parliament.
16 July 1994 An estimated one million Hutu refugees flee Rwanda and enter Zaïre and seek refuge at the border town of Goma. More refugees arrive through the month of August

More on the History of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Part 1: Prehistory to Beginning of Belgian Administration
Part 2: Beginning of Belgian Administration to End of Katanga Secession
Part 3: End of Katanga Secession to Rebellion in Shaba
Part 5: Genocide in Neighboring Rwanda to Assassination of Laurent-Désiré Kabila
Part 6: Assassination of Laurent-Désiré Kabila to Present Day

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