Themes / Events
Whether slavery existed within sub-Saharan African societies before the arrival of Europeans is a hotly contested point between Afrocentric and Eurocentric academics. What is certain is that Africans were subjected to several forms of slavery over the centuries, including chattel slavery under both the Muslims with the trans-Saharan slave trade, and Europeans through the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
- Types of Slavery in Africa
- The Role of Islam in African Slavery
- Origins of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
- São Tomé and the Slave Trade
- The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
- How Many Slaves Were Taken from Africa?
- Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Origins of Slaves
- Images of African Slavery and the Slave Trade
- Slave Laws in South Africa
- Slavery in the Cape Colony - Timeline
Human Origins in Africa
Is Africa truly the cradle of humankind? The oldest fossils of humankind's early ancestors have been found across the African continent and DNA evidence also supports Africa's significant role in human evolution.
Scramble for Africa
During the colonial era, Africa was transformed through internal and external pressures. Famine and disease, as well as territorial conflicts such as the Mfecane, caused distinct changes in African society. The abolition of the slave trade, forcibly imposed on Europe's African interests by Britain, as well as the European Scramble for Africa, left traditional African cultures fractured and bleeding.
- What Caused the Scramble for Africa?
- General Act of the Berlin Conference on West Africa
- Mandates in Africa
- Covenant of the League of Nations: Article 22
- Covenant of the League of Nations: Article 23
Race for Independence
The struggle for independence which followed the First World War had a serious effect on Europe's African empires. Both peaceful and bloody resistance to Colonial domination occurred as Africa reclaimed it's own identity.
- A Chronological List of Independence Dates
- A Gazetteer of African Independence
- Africa and the Commonwealth of Nations
- Alphabetical List of African Members of the Commonwealth of Nations
- Key Events in the Decolonization of Africa: Suez Crisis
- The Tripartite Invasion, 1956
- What was the "Wind of Change" speech?
- Text of Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" Speech
- Henrik Verwoerd's Response to Harold Macmillan's "Wind of Change" Speech
Conflict and War
Africa history has been turbulent, with many wars and conflicts: from ancient battles, to wars of independence, and today's civil wars.
- The Tripolitan War, 1801 - 1805
- Anglo-Zulu War 1879
- 1st Italo-Ethiopian war, 1896
- Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902