The Treaty of Vereeniging ended the 2nd Anglo-Boer War (also known as the South African War). It was signedby the British government and the Boer republics on 31 May 1902. It is named for the town in the Transvaal where negotiations were undertaken.
Peace was effectively forced upon the Boer republics after British forces instigated a scorched-earth policy to combat the guerilla tactics of the recalcitrant Boer commandos.
The Boers asked for the creation of a protectorate, which was rejected by the British who rather wanted to annex the Boer republics (one of the original reasons behind the war). However the British eventually agreed to Boer demands that 'natives' not be given the franchise (to the extent that it was ultimately removed in the Cape following the union of 1910) and that property rights be maintained.
The treaty allowed for the eventual self-government of the Transvaal (Zuid Afrikaansche Republick) and Orange Free State (Oranje Vrij Staat) as colonies within the British Empire, these occurred in 1906 and 07 respectively.
The treaty was signed by Lord Milner (British High Commissioner) and Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener for Britain, by Louis Botha, FW Reitz, JH de la Ray, SW Burger, JC Krogh,,and LJ Meyer for the Transvaal, and by JBM Hertzog, CR de Wet, WCJ Brebner, and CH Oliver for the Orange Free State.