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Definition: Afrikaner work for 'foreigner' applied to, mostly English-speaking, non-Afrikaners in the Transvaal republic in the late 19th century. Tens of thousand of such uitlanders had settled in the Transvaal following the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand in 1886. The influx threatened the political independence of the recently formed republic (negotiated at the 1884 London Convention, three years after the 1st Anglo-Boer War).

Transvaal relied on revenue generated by the gold mines, but the government refused to grant the uitlanders the franchise, and kept upping the period required to qualify for citizenship. The plight of the uitlanders was cited as the reason for both the Jameson Raid of 1895 and the 2nd Anglo-Boer War (South African War).
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