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Definition:

The M23, a shortened form for the March 23 Movement, is a rebel force based in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly in the province of North Kivu.

The group is named for the peace treaty which was signed on 23 March 2009 between the DRC government and the Congrès National pour la Défense du Peuple (CNDP, National Congress for the Defense of the People). The result was that the CNDP became an official political party in the DRC and that members of the Defense force joined Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC, Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo).

On 4 April 2012 a group of around 300 soldiers mutinied against FARDC and the government complaining that the government had failed to implement the peace deal. M23, under the command of General Bosco Ntaganda, consists mainly of Tutsis, and is opposed to the Hutu militia, Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR, Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda), and small community based militias known as Mai-Mai.

M23 have had a few military successes, including taking control of the town of Goma in November 2012. They have also threatened to stage a coup against President Joseph Kabilia.

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