Chief of the Gcaleka people and paramount chief of the Xhosa from 1804. Believed by the British to have been behind the Xhosa invasion of the Cape in 1834 (6th Frontier War). He was captured by the British, and whilst being held hostage in 1835 was shot 'trying to escape'. His body was subsequently mutilated and rumours circulated that his head had been preserved and taken back to Britain. The spectacular circumstances of his death resulted in his becoming a martyr for the Xhosa people.