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Côte d'Ivoire Timeline

A chronology of key events in Côte d'Ivoire's history

1300s Mandinka (or Dyuola) people arrive in region, having migrated from the Niger basin.
Mali Empire extends into northwest corner of Côte d'Ivoire, around present day Odienné.
1600s Portuguese are the first Europeans to arrive along coast -- trading in gold, ivory and pepper. Slave trade starts up in small scale by local chiefs bring Africans from the interior.
1637 First French missionaries arrive in region.
1750s Baoulé kingdom established around Sakasso by Akan group fleeing the Asante Empire.
1830s French trading posts begin to develop along coast.
1842 Trading rights along coast are negotiated by French admiral, Bouët-Willaumez, with local chiefs -- coastal regions now under French protectorate.
1871 Following defeat in the Franco-Prussion war, France withdraws much of its military from Côte d'Ivoire, leaving it open to commercial exploitation.
1881 Samouri Touré's Wassoulou Empire extends into northern Côte d'Ivoire.
1885 France's interest in Côte d'Ivoire acknowledged by the Berlin Conference.
1886 France takes direct control of costal trading posts.
1887 Protectorate agreement reached between Lieutenant Louis Gustave Binger, for France, and local chiefs.
1889 Lieutenant Louis Gustave Binger completes a two year journey through the interior of Côte d'Ivoire . Additional protectorate agreements are reached with local chiefs.
1892 Border agreement reached with Liberia.
1893 Border agreement reached with British colony Gold Coast (now Ghana).
10 March 1893 France creates colony of Côte d'Ivoire. Captain Louis Gustave Binger appointed governor.

1895 Samouri Touré's forces destroy the city of Kong, in north Côte d'Ivoire.
1898 Present borders of Côte d'Ivoire fixed.
29 September 1898 Samouri Touré captured and exiled to Gabon.
1903-36 Development of plantations and cash crops.
1904 Côte d'Ivoire is now part of the Federation of French West Africa (Afrique Occidentale Française).
1908 French military occupation of Côte d'Ivoire finalized.
1910 Abe people, in southern Côte d'Ivoire, rebel.
1914-18 Indigenous peoples rebel when France attempts to conscript them for WWI.
1934 Significant parts of French colony of Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) are added to Côte d'Ivoire.
1944 Félix Houphouët-Boigny, along with August Denise, form the Syndicat Agricole Africain (SAA, African Agricultural Syndicate).
1946 Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (RDA, African Democratic Rally) formed
1946 Côte d'Ivoire and Upper Volta once again separated.
1958 Côte d'Ivoire begins internal self-government as a republic within the French Community.
1 May 1959 Houphouët-Boigny became prime minister of Côte d'Ivoire.
7 August 1960 Independence from France, Félix Houphouët-Boigny becomes president.
1963 Attempted military coup is put down.
1970 Côte d'Ivoire develops oil extraction industry.
1973 Military coup is put down.
1980 Military coup is put down.
1981 Agricultural recession has significant affect on economy -- national debt begins to grow.
1983 Félix Houphouët-Boigny declares capital to move from Abidjan to his home city of Yamoussoukro.
1987 Price of cocoa falls internationally by 50%, economy once again hit badly.
1989 Félix Houphouët-Boigny has world's largest Catholic basilica built at Yamoussoukro.
March 1990 New constitution introduced.
Oct 1990 First multi-party national elections held, Félix Houphouët-Boigny wins comfortably against Laurent Gbagbo of the Front Populaire Ivoirien(FPI, Ivorian Popular Front).
1993 Félix Houphouët-Boigny dies. Succeded by Henri Konan Bédié.
1995 Henri Konan Bédié wins general elections, but some opposition parties were barred from taking part, others boycotted the election.
1999 Henri Konan Bédié overthrown by military coup led by General Robert Guéi. Bédié flees to France.
October 2000 Laurent Gbagbo (FPI) elected president, defeating incumbent Guéi who had proclaimed himself president after 'winning' the presidential election. Alassane Ouattara, an opposition leader who was barred form running for the presidency calls for fresh elections. Fighting erupts between followers of Ouattara (mostly from the Muslim north) and Gbagbo (from the Christian south). Quattara goes into exile in France.
2001 International media reveal stories of Côte d'Ivoire cocoa farmers using migrant child laborers as slaves labor.
Coup attempt against Laurent Gbagbo fails.
Talks begin between Gbagbo and Quattara's parties.They agree to work for reconciliation.
November 2001 Alassane Ouattara returns from France.
As part of the reconciliation, four ministerial posts are given to members of Quattara's Rassemblement des Républicains (RDR, Rally of the Republicans) party.
19 September 2002 Military mutiny in Abidjan. Mouvement Patriotique de Côte d'Ivoire (MPCI, Patriotic Movement of Côte d'Ivoire) rebels seize control in north of country.
2002-3 Major rebellion develops out of military uprising.
January 2003 Peace finally agreed between President Gbagbo and rebel groups in Paris.
July 2003 Ceremony at Presidential palace declares war is over.
August 2003 Mercenary team detained in France, said to be planning to assassinate President Gbagbo.
March 2004 Opposition rally against President Gbagbo is met with violence. First UN peacekeepers arrive.
November 2004 Ivorian air force attacks rebel bases. Nine French soldiers are killed in an attack. Anti-French protests erupt around the country. Arms embargo imposed by UN.
April 2005 Peacekeeping talks held in South Africa between government and rebels.
October 2005 Gbagbo applies a new law which allows him to stay in power, thus halting plans for an election. The UN backs him up, extending his mandate for another year.
7 December 2005 Charles Konan Banny, an economist, it is hoped that he will negotiate disarmament with the rebels and arrange new elections for 2006.
June 2006 President Gbagbo's own militias fail to disarm according to schedule.
September 2006 Toxic waste dumped in Abidjan.
November 2006 Transitional government's mandate extended for yet another year by the UN.
March 2007 Power sharing deal signed between President Gbagbo and rebels.
4 April 2007 Guillaume Kigbafori Soro, formally of the MPCI, now leader of the Forces Nouvelles de Côte d'Ivoire (FN, Côte d'Ivoire New Forces) made prime minister.
May 2007 Militia's finally begin to disarm.
June 2007 Rocket attack on plane carrying Prime Minister Soro.
October 2007 Sanctions to continue for at least one more year say UN.
January 2008 8,000 UN peacekeepers to watch over Côte d'Ivoire until new elections.
Ten are arrested for suspected coup attempt.
May 2008 Rebels in northern Côte d'Ivoire begin to disarm.
October 2008 UN sanctions and arms embargo extended yet again. UN says it will review once presidential elections have taken place.
November 2008 President Gbagbo and Prime Minister Soro postpone presidential elections once more.
May 2009 Election date of 29 November is announced.
November 2009 Presidential elections postponed yet again.

More on the History of Côte d'Ivoire
A Very Short History of Côte d'Ivoire

Important People from Côte d'Ivoire's History
Leaders of Côte d'Ivoire Since Independence
Félix Houphouët-Boigny

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