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Republic of Congo Timeline -- Part 3: From President Denis Sassou-Nguesso (14 August 1979) to the 1999 Ceasefire

A Chronology of Key Events in Republic of Congo

By Alistair Boddy-Evans, About.com

14 August 1979 Denis Sassou-Nguesso becomes President of the People's Republic of Congo for the Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party). The People's Republic of the Congo is a One-Party State
1981 Treaty of friendship and co-operation signed with the Soviet Union.
July 1984 Denis Sassou-Nguesso re-elected as chairman of the Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party) and president of the People's Republic of Congo.
7 August 1984 Ange-Édouard Poungui becomes Prime Minister for the Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party).
1985 Worldwide fluctuations in the price of oil causes economic problems for the Republic.
July 1987 Jacques-Joachim Yhombi-Opango and Captain Pierre Anga are implicated in a plot to overthrow President Denis Sassou-Nguesso. Twenty members of the military are arrested
September 1987 Jacques-Joachim Yhombi-Opango is arrested and detained for his part in an attempted coup d'état
Captain Pierre Anga attempts to incite Kouyou people in his home town of Owando to rebellion. The Congolese government is given military aid from France to help quell the uprising.
4 July 1988 Captain Pierre Anga is killed near to the town of Owando, and the Kouyou rebellion quashed.
1988 People's Republic of Congo hosts a conference in Brazzaville which paves the way for independence of Namibia.
August 1988 The Congolese government announces an amnesty for all political prisoners jailed before July 1987
July 1989 President Denis Sassou-Nguesso re-elected
7 August 1989 Alphonse Poaty-Souchlaty becomes Prime Minister for the Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party). The government is reorganized to remove prominent left-wing ministers and replace them with political moderates.
September 1989 Pariliamantary elections for a selected list of Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party) candidates.
14 August 1990 President Denis Sassou-Nguesso releases political prisoners (including Jacques-Joachim Yhombi-Opango) as part of the 30th anniversary celebrations of Congolese independence.
3 December 1990 Alphonse Poaty-Souchlaty resigns and Pierre Moussa becomes Prime Minister for the Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party).
27 December 1990 Government allows the creation of legal opposition parties in advance of transitional change to multi-party democracy.
1990 People's Republic of Congo renounces Marxism and adopts a social-democratic ideology.
8 January 1991 General Louis Sylvain-Goma becomes Prime Minister for the Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party) as part of the transition to multi-party democracy.
8 June 1991 A National Conference founds a Higher Council empowered bring in a new constitution and parliamentary and legislative elections.
Sovereign National Conference restores the country's name from People's Republic of Congo to Republic of Congo
André Milongo becomes Prime Minister as an independent -- the National Conference has specified that a Prime Minister should be head of state rather than a president..
Mid January 1992 Republic of Congo's transitional government is threatened by a military uprising. The rebellion is quashed by the dismissal of the Minister of Defense.
15 March 1992 New constitution introduced which legalizes multi-party democracy passed by national referendum.
24 June 1992 Legislative election under the new constitution are held.
July 1992 Union Panafricaine pour la Démocratie Sociale (UPADS, Pan-African Union for Social Development) gains largest number of seats for a single party in legislative elections (39 out of 125 seats), Mouvement Congolais pour la Démocratie et le Développement Intégral (MCDDI, Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development) wins 29 seats, Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party) wins 18.
Union Panafricaine pour la Démocratie Sociale (UPADS, Pan-African Union for Social Development) gains largest number of seats for the senate (23 out of 60 seats).
2 September 1992 Stéphane Maurice Bongho-Nouarra becomes Prime Minister for the Alliance Nationale pour la Démocratie (AND, National Alliance for Democracy).
31 August 1992 Pascal Lissouba becomes President of the Republic of Congo for the Union Panafricaine pour la Démocratie Sociale (UPADS, Pan-African Union for Social Development) in the country's first multi-party democratic elections.
6 December 1992 Claude-Antoine Dacosta becomes Prime Minister as an independent.
1992 Political violence and attempted coup d'état.
23 June 1993 Jacques-Joachim Yhombi-Opango becomes Prime Minister for the Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Développement (RDD, Rally for Democracy and Development).
1993 Disputes between government and opposition supporters turn violent and lead to armed conflict on the streets.
1994 Ceasefire agreed between government and opposition groups. Opposition members of parliament are given government positions.
27 August 1996 Charles David Ganao becomes Prime Minister for the Forces Démocratiques Unies (UFD, United Democratic Forces).
8 September 1997 Bernard Kolélas becomes Prime Minister for the Mouvement Congolais pour la Démocratie et le Développement Intégral (MCDDI, Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development).
15 October 1997 President Pascal Lissouba and Prime Minister Bernard Kolélas removed from office by military coup.
25 October 1997 Denis Sassou-Nguesso becomes President of the Republic of Congo for the Parti Congolais du Travail (PCT, Congolese Workers' Party) after seizing power with the aid of Angolan troops. Pascal Lissouba flees the country whilst loyal militia forces continue to fight a guerrilla war.
Civil war erupts in the Republic of Congo as pro-Sassou-Nguesso troops capture Brazzaville.
1997 President attempts to disarm rebel militias ahead of national elections.
Peace deal with Ninja rebel militia brings stability.
1998 Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo negotiate their common border.
1999 Government and rebel forces agree to a ceasefire after negotiations in Zambia -- political parties are to give up their armed wings, rebel soldiers are to be integrated into the army.

More on the History of Republic of Congo
Part 1: From Prehistory to Membership of La Communauté (1946)
Part 2: From Membership of La Communauté (1946) to President Denis Sassou-Nguesso (14 August 1979)
Part 4: From the 1999 Ceasefire to Present Day

History Resources for the Republic of Congo
Leaders of the Republic of Congo Since Independence

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