During the pre-revolution period before 1952 there were three main political groups in Egypt: Wafd, a nationalist organization which opposed British influence; King Faruk I, installed by the British, and the British who wished to maintain control of the Suez Canal. Meanwhile the Muslim Brotherhood was growing in power in the background.
Anti-British feeling grew after World War II, and British troops were withdrawn to cover just the Suez Canal in '47. In July 1952 the 'Free Officers', a revolutionary group lead by Lt. Col. Gamal Abdel Nasser, organized a coup against King Faruk whom they blamed for Egypt's poor economic and military performance. Instead they installed King Fuad II as head of state, advised by a Council of Regency the Revolutionary Command Council. In September that year General Muhammad Naguib became prime minister.
On 19 June 1953 the Free Officers abrogated the existing constitution (created in 1923) and declared Egypt a republic. The monarchy was abolished and Muhammad Naguib became president.