Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa, Nobel Laureate, and world acclaimed international statesman, has died at home in Houghton, Johannesburg, South Africa. He had been receiving medical care for a lung infection at home after several months in hospital.
Nelson Mandela had been the figurehead of South Africa's transition to black-majority rule, taking the post of president after the 1994 elections. He retired from public life ten years ago.
Tributes have been expressed around the world by International Statesmen, African Presidents, fellow South Africans, and the odd Celebrity. Find what has been said: The World Remembers Nelson Mandela
The cities of Melilla and Ceuta had been Spanish territory since 1497 and 1580 respectively, the latter handed over by Portugal. With the signing of the Treaty of Fez in March 1912, the sovereignty of the majority of Morocco passed to France, which declared the country a protectorate (this was part of a series of international agreements which saw recognition of French and Spanish territories in West Africa and the creation of a German colony Kamerun). A further agreement signed on 27 November 1912 between Spain and France established a Spanish Protectorate over the northern coastal zone which surrounded and joined Melilla and Ceuta, as well as Ifni on the Atlantic coast, and Tangiers (which became an International Zone in 1923).
In 1956 when French Morocco gained independence, Spain surrendered the majority of it's occupied territory - but not Ceuta, Melilla, Ifni, and Tarfaya. Tarfaya was prised back from Spain by Morocco in 1958, and Ifni followed in 1969. Spain, however, considers the cities of Melilla and Ceuta to be part of Spain proper and has refused Moroccan demands to return them.
New Resources for Mozambique
From the sixteenth century the Portuguese traded along the coast for gold, ivory, and slaves. Mozambique was made a Portuguese colony in 1752, with large tracts of land run by private companies. A war for liberation was started by FRELIMO in 1964 which ultimately led to independence in 1975. The civil war, however, continued into the 90's.
Find out more with the final two parts now added to the seven part timeline below
Timeline of Mozambique
Part 1: From Prehistory to the Start of the 19th Century
Part 2: From Start of the 19th Century to Founding of FRELIMO (25 June 1962)
Part 3: From Founding of FRELIMO (25 June 1962) to FRELIMO Adopts Marxist-Leninist policies (March 1977)
Part 4: From FRELIMO Adopts Marxist-Leninist Policies (March 1977) to Death of President Samora Machel (19 October 1986)
Part 5: From Death of President Samora Machel (19 October 1986) to FRELIMO Drops Maxist-Leninist Policy (30 July 1989)
Part 6: From FRELIMO Drops Maxist-Leninist Policy (30 July 1989) to Assassination of Carlos Cardoso (22 November 2000)
Part 7: From Assassination of Carlos Cardoso (22 November 2000) to Present Day
From the diary of Howard Carter, 26 November 1922:
"After clearing 9 metres of the descending passage, in about the middle of the afternoon, we came upon a second sealed doorway ... The seal impressions were of Tutankhamun and of the Royal Necropolis, but not in any way so clear as those on the first doorway. The entrance and passage both in plan and in style resembled almost to measurement the tomb containing the cache of Akhenaten discovered by Davis in the very near vicinity; which seemed to substantiate our first conjecture that we had found a cache.Read More...
On 24 November 1991 Freddie Mercury died of AIDS induced bracho-pneumonia. Freddie Mercury was born Farrokh Bulsara on the island of Zanzibar (then a British Protectorate) on 5 September 1946. Feddie's parents, Bomi and Jer Bulsara, were Indian Parsis, and they had moved to Zanzibar for Bomi's job as a cashier in the British Colonial Office.
The family fled Zanzibar in 1964 when the recently elected government was overthrown and Zanzibar (briefly) declared a republic. The family moved to Feltham, London, and Farrokh studied art at Isleworth Polytechnic, eventually gaining a diploma in Art and Graphic Design. By April 1970, Farrokh had changed his name to Freddie Mercury and joined with Brian May and Roger Taylor to form Queen.
Find out why Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf in known as Liberia's 'Iron Lady'.
On 14 November 1975 the Franco government signed the tripartite Madrid Agreement with Morocco and Mauritania for the proposed administration of the region. Earlier in the month, 6 November, Morocco's King Hassan had ordered 350,000 people to begin the Green March into Western Sahara with the intent of annexing the entire country. The capital, Laayoune, was captured shortly afterwards. Mauritania also made moves to take control of the region.
Claims by Morocco and Mauritania were rejected by The International Court of Justice, who found for the indigenous Saharawis' right to self-determination. The Madrid Agreement, however, resulted in a two-thirds to one-third partition between Morocco and Mauritania, which came into effect on 28 February 1976. (Mauritania renounced its claim in 1979 and Morocco seized the whole country.)