New Resources for Cape Verde
The archipelago of Cape Verde became a Portuguese colony in 1462. A joint struggle for the liberation of Cape Verde and the mainland colony of Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) began. Independence was achieved in 1975 with proposed union to the new state of Guinea-Bissau. In 1981 multi-party democracy was introduced to Cape Verde.
Find out more about Cape Verde with this two page timeline:
More on Cape Verde
• Map of Cape Verde
Rhodesia once again falls under British rule after the country's government voted itself out of office through the Constitution of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia Bill. Ian Smith's government had announced a Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965, heralding 14 years of white settler-rule. The end of UDI was the subject of a whites-only referendum held in January 1979, ahead of elections for a transitional government which brought Josiah Zion Gumede of the United African National Congress (UANC) into power.
The mainland of Tanzania became a German colony called Tanganyika in 1884 whilst the Sultanate of Zanzibar became a British Protectorate in 1890. Tanganyika became a British mandated territory in 1918 and achieved independence in 1961. In 1963 Zanzibar achieved independence, and a year later formed a union with Tanganyika under the new name of Tanzania.
Félix Houphouët-Boigny was the first president of Côte d'Ivoire, from 6 August 1960 until his death in office. He was a relatively paternal ruler who helped bring a sound economy and political stability to the country. Closely tied to US interests in the Cold War, Houphouët-Boigny severed ties with the Soviet Union in 1969 (they were rekindled in 1986), and refused to recognize China. Towards the end of his rule, conditions started to deteriorate, and rumors spread about the diversion of funds to private accounts. After Houphouët-Boigny's death, the country rapidly became unstable, suffered a couple of coup d'etats before civil war erupted in 2002.
Also see Quotes by Félix Houphouët-Boigny.
Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa, Nobel Laureate, and world acclaimed international statesman, has died at home in Houghton, Johannesburg, South Africa. He had been receiving medical care for a lung infection at home after several months in hospital.
Nelson Mandela had been the figurehead of South Africa's transition to black-majority rule, taking the post of president after the 1994 elections. He retired from public life ten years ago.
Tributes have been expressed around the world by International Statesmen, African Presidents, fellow South Africans, and the odd Celebrity. Find what has been said: The World Remembers Nelson Mandela
The cities of Melilla and Ceuta had been Spanish territory since 1497 and 1580 respectively, the latter handed over by Portugal. With the signing of the Treaty of Fez in March 1912, the sovereignty of the majority of Morocco passed to France, which declared the country a protectorate (this was part of a series of international agreements which saw recognition of French and Spanish territories in West Africa and the creation of a German colony Kamerun). A further agreement signed on 27 November 1912 between Spain and France established a Spanish Protectorate over the northern coastal zone which surrounded and joined Melilla and Ceuta, as well as Ifni on the Atlantic coast, and Tangiers (which became an International Zone in 1923).
In 1956 when French Morocco gained independence, Spain surrendered the majority of it's occupied territory - but not Ceuta, Melilla, Ifni, and Tarfaya. Tarfaya was prised back from Spain by Morocco in 1958, and Ifni followed in 1969. Spain, however, considers the cities of Melilla and Ceuta to be part of Spain proper and has refused Moroccan demands to return them.
New Resources for Mozambique
From the sixteenth century the Portuguese traded along the coast for gold, ivory, and slaves. Mozambique was made a Portuguese colony in 1752, with large tracts of land run by private companies. A war for liberation was started by FRELIMO in 1964 which ultimately led to independence in 1975. The civil war, however, continued into the 90's.
Find out more with the final two parts now added to the seven part timeline below
Timeline of Mozambique
• Part 1: From Prehistory to the Start of the 19th Century
• Part 2: From Start of the 19th Century to Founding of FRELIMO (25 June 1962)
• Part 3: From Founding of FRELIMO (25 June 1962) to FRELIMO Adopts Marxist-Leninist policies (March 1977)
• Part 4: From FRELIMO Adopts Marxist-Leninist Policies (March 1977) to Death of President Samora Machel (19 October 1986)
• Part 5: From Death of President Samora Machel (19 October 1986) to FRELIMO Drops Maxist-Leninist Policy (30 July 1989)
• Part 6: From FRELIMO Drops Maxist-Leninist Policy (30 July 1989) to Assassination of Carlos Cardoso (22 November 2000)
• Part 7: From Assassination of Carlos Cardoso (22 November 2000) to Present Day
From the diary of Howard Carter, 26 November 1922:
"After clearing 9 metres of the descending passage, in about the middle of the afternoon, we came upon a second sealed doorway ... The seal impressions were of Tutankhamun and of the Royal Necropolis, but not in any way so clear as those on the first doorway. The entrance and passage both in plan and in style resembled almost to measurement the tomb containing the cache of Akhenaten discovered by Davis in the very near vicinity; which seemed to substantiate our first conjecture that we had found a cache.Read More...